|رايتي الله اكبر|
عدد المساهمات : 122
نقاط : 3075
السٌّمعَة : 0
تاريخ التسجيل : 24/06/2009
العمر : 21
|موضوع: * the problem of poverty and underdevelopment in the Islamic world: الخميس فبراير 18, 2010 12:25 am|| |
the problem of poverty and underdevelopment in the Islamic world:.
Before we start talking about the causes of poverty and underdevelopment in the Muslim world must stop at the current economic reality of this world, characterized, inter alia, which is as follows:
1. inequality in the distribution of natural resources, creating a disparity in the income of the Islamic world.
2. inconsistencies in population distribution, making States suffers from increasing population and surplus labour, such as: Egypt, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and this would overburden the resources in these countries, so as to increase labour force on demand, then lead to a reduction in the standard of living and high poverty rate, while populations in some States lack the necessary labour force, as oil countries in particular.
3. lack of balance between production and consumption, and bilila so many Islamic countries, some people State an unbalanced with economic growth, population increase thus consume all increases in production leading to a deterioration in the standard of living and high poverty rate. And you might get the contrary.
4. the low level of technical knowledge, and this has led to delays falling progress, because due to the scarcity of a scientific research centres, poor opportunities for those centres.
5. Not to take advantage of advanced production methods, lack of capital you need huge projects which is characterized by its large size, poor in Islamic countries.
6. the lack of planning, and as a result, lack of coordination between economic plans and productivity, and the absence of clear plans which outlines the way sifalah, set priorities, to the benefit and interest of the whole Islamic nation.
7. lack of coordination between economic policy and trade, both among Islamic States with each other, or the external world, because on certain economic conventions would facilitate the flow of labour and capital among signatories.
8. population growth at a rate greater than increasing production in many Islamic countries, leaving negative economic effects bug a wide range of population.
9. the lack of available natural resources information accurately, in many Islamic countries, even be developed production in the Muslim world.
10. failure to identify problems and obstacles that hinder production in some Islamic countries, even may be encountered in the framework of a comprehensive plan for countries of the world.
11. frequent disputes and wars between some Islamic States, hampering economic development and standing in front of the possibility of cooperation between countries of the world unity.
12. the lack of extensive land for expansion of arable farmland.
13. non-extensive pastures effectively 7wcgalp.
14. not to take advantage of extensive water bodies effectively, belonging to the Islamic world, in fishing.
15. different economic systems prevailing in Islamic countries, some of which follow the Western capitalist system, and others follow the Socialist system.
Those are the main characteristics of the economic reality of the Muslim world. And speak the following main reasons stated includes leading to find the problem of poverty and underdevelopment in the Muslim world, and researchers and thinkers relied and focusing on an extrapolation of fact to discover the most important reasons.
Major causes of poverty:
1. control of underdevelopment and lack of proper exploitation of material and human resources, which is reflected in lower standard of living in General, and corruption and on ûçáè Islamic countries where economies experiencing vocabulary of the concept of underdevelopment in the broad sense of the undoubtedly play a key role in finding vocabulary. Islamic countries came not in the forefront of those countries, and even some oil-producing countries still suffer from economic backwardness, though less reason because it did not support optimal economic policies in the employment of oil revenues out of underdevelopment, especially those in population growth, which has a large geographical region, which falls below of Algeria, Iraq and Libya. And for the Islamic world – economically backward from underdevelopment, must adopt development as a means to economic growth stage.
2. control of economic dependence and foreign labour on Islamic world economy ûçáè.
3. not to apply the principle of economic integration in Islamic countries.
4. There is a gap in the distribution of natural resources and human resources among Islamic countries.
5. misuse of the resources available in Islamic countries.
6. the worsening debt ûçáè Islamic countries.
7. the Islamic capital investment scarcity in the Islamic world, poor countries enjoying ûçáè of oil – especially GCC-substantial financial wealth resulting from the sale of oil and oil products, but the question is: where do we invest such abundant appropriate investment and sound and healthy? And how do we keep them and take good care, to keep us and our Arab and Islamic??? …
Proposed solutions to address these causes, it consisted of the following:
· economic growth through economic development and poverty eradication, says author ((third world)) under the title ((for a development?: ïñæó world)): ((often linked to a development between the observers and shareholders, as if her concept of mean there is a difference in fact about basic questions for any purpose? development and development to where? all agreed on one point, namely that development should mean the Elimination of poverty and hunger and destitution)). Then occur – author himself – for the purpose of the emergence of new development plans: ((and new strategies for development initially appears as a means of eliminating absolute poverty as quickly as possible so that men and women can look to a life free from poverty, hunger, ignorance and disease, if not for themselves, at least their children or grandchildren, but new strategies also contain implied values and objectives in line with the idea that development was not only things, but also to humankind, and to all men and women fully develop their intellectual, social and aesthetic.
· economic independence of States which suffer from economic dependency problem.
· the principle of economic integration among countries in the world, economic integration is a building to economically more solid, so go away all obstacles and constraints arson during the implementation process, so you can get institutions and means of coordination and standardization supported yet.
· human resources and natural resources (revenue) or to the Islamic world.
· adoption of optimal allocation of available resources to use in Islamic countries.
· adoption of economic and monetary policy leading to the Islamic world debt repayment.
· æýñé Islamic capital investment in poor countries the Islamic world, but there may be obstacles, found in some countries, can be classified into five groups as follows: 1. structural constraints.
2. legislative and legal constraints.
3. the political and social constraints.
4. the economic and financial constraints.
"5. regulatory and administrative constraints.
As for the findings of the study (the problem of poverty in the Islamic world – causes and solutions), and so rely on Islamic economy concepts, it:
· the original natural resources in the Islamic world is abundance also not infrequent, and therefore cannot accept the existence of the problem of poverty in the State, and if that problem-there are reasons led to the study sought to find, solutions.
· the original natural resources globally is abundance rather than scarcity, and therefore cannot accept a cosmic level problem of poverty.
· a country wide diversity resources are scarce, and here there is the problem of poverty, and abundance, diversity and here cannot accept the existence of the problem of poverty, although it is an exceptional situation.
The Islamic world has diversified asset and great natural resources, will clarify the following: for the reality of agriculture in the Muslim world, Islamic world large footprint nearly 2,935 million hectares, this area represents some 22% of the world, 13,392 million hectares, representing half of arable area. Of this area is about 2,525.00 hectares, which represents approximately 4% of the arable area in the Islamic world, this means that there is a large amount of arable area, estimated 2,572 million hectares are disabled, and could have a role in securing the Islamic world need food, that blocks from abroad, and because production agricultural domestic consumption of food.
Also owns the Islamic world is a mineral wealth in some areas, as is the case for oil production, contributes approximately 47% of world production, and production in some countries – as is the case for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirates-enter in the field of international trade through the exported abroad.
Based on what we offer, it — the sentence-the Islamic world has many natural resources and those resources are characterised, in principle, abundance and not scarce, if the assumption that the production of a resource is scarce, as is the case for iron for example, there is the possibility to import resources from producing States without a total balance vain of Islamic States.
And finally ... The reality of poverty – based on the foregoing-origin lies not in the scarcity of resources – if we want to look at the subject look ýuniversal, because cosmic level resources is abundance – but due to poor distribution of wealth and income between the peoples of the globe, and studies have shown that 23% of the world population live in developed countries — countries of the North – and get almost 82% of world income, while 77% of world population in developing countries – or what is known as the South – and only 18% of global income, the only shows poor distribution of wealth and income between peoples